how to calculate fractions


Calculating fractions can be a tricky task for many people. Whether you’re a student learning math or an adult needing to use fractions in everyday life, understanding how to calculate them is essential. In this article, we will explore the basics of fraction calculations and provide simple step-by-step instructions to make it easier for you. So, let’s dive right in and demystify fractions!

What are Fractions?

Before we delve into the calculations, let’s ensure we have a clear understanding of what fractions actually are. In simple terms, fractions represent parts of a whole. They consist of two numbers separated by a line, known as the fraction bar or division symbol. The number above the fraction bar is called the numerator, and the number below it is called the denominator. For example, in the fraction 3/4, 3 is the numerator, and 4 is the denominator.

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

how to calculate fractions

When it comes to adding or subtracting fractions, it’s important to ensure that the fractions have the same denominator. If they don’t, you need to find a common denominator before performing the calculation. Here are the steps to follow:

  1. Identify the denominators of the fractions you want to add or subtract.
  2. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators. The LCM is the smallest number that is divisible by both denominators.
  3. Convert the fractions to have the same denominator as the LCM.
  4. Add or subtract the numerators of the fractions while keeping the denominator unchanged.
  5. Simplify the resulting fraction, if necessary, by dividing both the numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor (GCD).
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Multiplication and Division of Fractions

Multiplying and dividing fractions is a bit simpler than adding or subtracting them. Follow these steps to correctly multiply or divide fractions:

  1. Multiply the numerators of the fractions to get the new numerator.
  2. Multiply the denominators of the fractions to get the new denominator.
  3. Simplify the resulting fraction, if possible, by dividing both the numerator and denominator by their GCD.

Converting between Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions

Sometimes, you may encounter mixed numbers (a whole number combined with a proper fraction) and need to convert them to improper fractions or vice versa. To convert a mixed number to an improper fraction, follow these steps:

  1. Multiply the whole number by the denominator of the fraction.
  2. Add the numerator to the result obtained in step 1.
  3. Place the sum obtained in step 2 as the new numerator of the improper fraction.
  4. Keep the denominator unchanged.

To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number, follow these steps:

  1. Divide the numerator by the denominator.
  2. The quotient obtained is the whole number part of the mixed number.
  3. The remainder obtained in step 1 becomes the new numerator.
  4. The denominator remains the same.


Calculating fractions may seem daunting at first, but with a clear understanding of the basic operations and a step-by-step approach, it becomes much simpler. Remember to always simplify your fractions when possible to obtain the most concise form. Practice your newly acquired skills, and soon enough, calculating fractions will become second nature. Happy calculating!

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