what is debentures

What are Debentures?

Debentures are one of the widely used financial instruments by corporations to raise funds from investors. In simple terms, debentures can be thought of as loans taken by a company from the public, who become creditors of the company in return. These financial instruments are issued by companies to borrow money for various purposes, such as expanding their business, financing projects, or improving working capital.

Types of Debentures

There are different types of debentures that companies can issue, depending on their specific needs and the terms of repayment. Some common types include:

1. Secured Debentures

what is debentures

Secured debentures are backed by specific assets or properties of the company. This means that in case of default, the creditors have the right to claim those assets to recover their money.

2. Unsecured Debentures

Unlike secured debentures, unsecured debentures are not backed by any specific assets. Therefore, in case of default, the creditors can only claim their dues from the general assets of the company.

3. Convertible Debentures

Convertible debentures are those that can be converted into equity shares of the company after a certain period. This provides an opportunity for investors to participate in the company’s growth and potentially earn higher returns.

4. Non-Convertible Debentures

Non-convertible debentures, as the name suggests, cannot be converted into equity shares. Investors receive fixed interest payments until the maturity of the debentures, at which point the principal amount is repaid.

5. Callable Debentures

Callable debentures include an option for the company to repay the outstanding amount to the debenture holders before the scheduled maturity date. This allows companies to take advantage of favorable market conditions or lower interest rates.

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6. Perpetual Debentures

Perpetual debentures do not have a fixed maturity date. They provide a regular stream of interest payments to the debenture holders, usually on an annual or semi-annual basis, without the obligation of repaying the principal amount.

Features of Debentures

Debentures offer several features that make them an attractive investment option for both companies and investors:

1. Fixed Interest Payments

Debenture holders receive fixed interest payments at regular intervals, providing a predictable income stream for investors.

2. Priority of Payment

In case of bankruptcy or liquidation, debenture holders have a higher priority of payment compared to equity shareholders. They are among the first to receive the outstanding amount.

3. Tradeability

Debentures can be bought and sold in the secondary market, allowing investors to exit their investments before maturity if desired. This enhances liquidity and flexibility.

4. Diversification

Investing in debentures allows for diversification of the investment portfolio. By allocating funds to different companies or industries, investors can spread their risk and potentially earn higher returns.

5. Trust Deed or Indenture

Debentures are governed by a trust deed or indenture, which outlines the terms and conditions of the debt agreement, including interest rate, maturity, and repayment terms. This provides legal protection to investors.

Advantages of Debentures

Debentures offer several advantages to companies as well as investors:

1. Lower Cost of Borrowing

Compared to obtaining a loan from a financial institution, issuing debentures can often result in a lower cost of borrowing for companies. It provides an alternative avenue to raise funds without relying solely on banks.

2. Flexible Repayment Options

Debentures can be issued with various repayment options, such as bullet repayments, where the principal amount is repaid at the end of the term, or installments, where the principal is repaid in regular intervals. This flexibility allows companies to align their repayment schedule with their cash flows.

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3. Attractive Returns for Investors

Debentures generally offer higher interest rates compared to traditional savings accounts or government bonds, making them an attractive investment option for individuals and institutional investors seeking higher returns.


Debentures play a crucial role in the financial landscape, providing companies with a means to raise capital and investors with an opportunity to earn fixed income. With their different types and features, debentures offer flexibility, diversification, and attractive returns. However, like any investment, it is essential for investors to carefully evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuing company before investing in debentures.

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